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Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. As a subcategory or field of digital signal processing, digital image processing has many advantages over analog image processing. It allows a much wider range of algorithms to be applied to the input data and can avoid problems such as the build-up of noise and signal distortion during processing. Since images are defined over two dimensions (perhaps more) digital image processing may be model in the form of multidimensional systems.
Image processing basically includes the following three steps
1. Importing the image with optical scanner or by digital photography.
2. Analyzing and manipulating the image which includes data compression and image enhancement and spotting patterns that are not to human eyes like satellite photographs. 3. Output is the last stage in which result can be altered image or report that is based on image analysis.
Purpose of Image processing
The purpose of image processing is divided into 5 groups. They are:
1. Visualization - Observe the objects that are not visible.
2. Image sharpening and restoration - To create a better image.
3. Image retrieval - Seek for the image of interest. 4. Measurement of pattern – Measures various objects in an image.
5. Image Recognition – Distinguish the objects in an image.
The two types of methods used for Image Processing are Analog and Digital Image Processing. Analog or visual techniques of image processing can be used for the hard copies like printouts and photographs. Image analysts use various fundamentals of interpretation while using these visual techniques. The image processing is not just confined to area that has to be studied but on knowledge of analyst. Association is another important tool in image processing through visual techniques. So analysts apply a combination of personal knowledge and collateral data to image processing.
Digital Processing techniques help in manipulation of the digital images by using computers. As raw data from imaging sensors from satellite platform contains deficiencies. To get over such flaws and to get originality of information, it has to undergo various phases of processing. The three general phases that all types of data have to undergo while using digital technique are Pre- processing, enhancement and display, information extraction.